A set of standards used in Europe exists and is often called the Dutch standards. The European Union EU is rapidly moving towards Europe-wide standards, although most of the industrialised nations in Europe have their own standards at present. In Canadamost standards for remediation are set by the provinces individually, but the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment provides guidance at a federal level in the form of the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines and the Canada-Wide Standards Canada-Wide Standard for Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil. Often nearby sites owned by the same company or which are nearby and have been reclaimed, levelled or filled are also contaminated even where the current land use seems innocuous.
Flexibility COST The overall cost of bioremediation is generally significantly lower than other types of remedial approaches. If the excavated material cannot be landfilled, disposal costs can rise dramatically. In addition, an excavation option is generally not suited for saturated soils.
The installation costs of mechanical systems soil vapor extraction, dual phase extraction, groundwater treatment, etc. Although multiple injections can be required, most sites require less than 3 or 4 injections if the site is properly assessed.
Bioremediation of a subsurface contaminant is typically accomplished by enhancing natural processes. These enhancements usually include the addition of a material into the subsurface and then allowing naturally-occurring microbes to degrade the constituents of concern.
Because this is essentially an apply-and-forget type of technology, there are little or no operating or maintenance costs after the material has been applied.
Normal Uses of bioaugmentation is usually required on quarterly or semi-annual basis to evaluate the progress of the application. No above ground surface structures: Injection of material into the subsurface can generally be accomplished through the use of direct injection or through permanent injection points.
If the application is done through direct injection, minimal disturbance of the surface is required during the injection event and the area can be put back into use immediately after the injection is completed. Injection through permanent points can require the installation of surface and near-surface utilities and some above-grade structures but these can usually be minimized through the use of technologies such as horizontal drilling to reduce impact to facility operations.
To meet complete removal or destruction, both approaches require the practitioner to continue remediation until all of the contamination has been addressed. The main cause of remedial option failure is the inability of a strategy to address sufficient contamination within a system to meet the goals of a project.
Biological degradation relies upon natural processes that under ideal conditions can be capable of complete degradation of a contaminant.
Ideal conditions are seldom, if ever, encountered in the field therefore the goals of bioremediation need to be commensurate with the resources available.
Mineralization, or conversion of an organic to carbon dioxide and water, can be accomplished with bioremediation.
Rates of mineralization can vary from compound to compound but a significant increase in degradation kinetics can be expected for most sites. In situations with significant contamination over large areas, bioremediation can be very effective in reducing the overall mass of contaminants.
It is not unusual to see contaminant concentrations in groundwater to be reduced by at least on order of magnitude after bioremediation implementation. In general, the maximum degradation level achievable is related to the resources allocated to the project.
In this respect it is extremely important to understand the goals of the project before beginning design activities. Wide range of contaminants: Bioremediation can be effective across a very wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants.
Aerobic processes can be very effective on petroleum products including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes, some chlorinated compounds, and some metals such as iron. Anaerobic bioremedial processes such as halorespiration are effective on a wide range of chlorinated contaminants including chlorinated ethenes and ethanes while the addition of sulfates can be effective in providing electron acceptors for the degradation of many petroleum hydrocarbons.
In the process of enhancing anaerobic bioremediation through the addition of carbon to a system many microbes will reduce the concentration of electron acceptors such as nitrates and sulfates. If these electron acceptors are identified as contaminants, the process of adding carbon to a system can also be considered an effective remedy for these constituents of concern.Bioaugmentation has been proven successful in cleaning up of sites contaminated with aromatic compounds but still faces many environmental problems.
One of the most difficult issues is survival of strains introduced to soil. Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Life Science ISSN – Bioremediation uses microorganisms to degrade organic contaminants in soil, groundwater, sludge, and solids.
The microorganisms break down contaminants by using them as an energy source or cometabolizing them with an energy source. Biostimulation and bioaugmentation can be used to treat soil and other solids, groundwater, or surface water.
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Safeguarding natural resources (like rivers, lakes, and more) is an important part of wastewater treatment solutions.
Facts, figures and findings from application of Toxkit microbiotests are reported in a large number of publications, reports and presentations at scientific symposia and workshops.