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It's that piece of code in our project that everyone is afraid to change. It's so confusing no one truly understands what is going on. We are all afraid that if we do change it, we'll break it. You have just discovered my favorite reason for writing unit tests.
But how do you write a unit test? What exactly is a unit test? How do I handle dependencies? And how is writing more code going to make my existing code better?
This tutorial will show you how. What is a unit test? For the case of this tutorial, we'll define a unit test as a test of a single isolated component in a repeatable way. Let's go thru that one section at a time to get a clearer idea of what goes into a unit test. This means to verify something is correct.
In order for us to have a valid unit test, we need to actually validate that after a start condition A, an end condition B exists.
This is what separates a unit test from other types of tests. In order for it to be a unit test, it must test something in isolation, aka without dependencies.
The reason for this is that we are testing the component itself and not it's interaction with other components that is an integration test.
Finally, although most definitions don't include this piece, " It's one thing to run a test that passes.
It's quite different to have something you can run in a repeatable manor at any point to see if changes you made effected how the component behaves. For example, if you choose to do some refactoring to improve performance, can you rerun your unit test to verify that you didn't change the behavior of the component.
Setup I will be using Eclipse 3. To begin, create a new java project and call it JUnitTutorial. Name it lib and click Finish. Usually you don't want to package your test code with your regular code, so let's make an additional source directory, test.
To do that, right click on your new project and select Properties. Select Java Build Path from the available options. Next we need to add JUnit to our build path. Since it comes with Eclipse, all we need to do is to go to the Libraries tab, click the button Add Library, select JUnit and click Next.
Select JUnit 4 and click Finish. Click ok to exit the Preferences window. We will also need to download and add the EasyMock jar files to our project. You can find the jars here. Once you download the zip file we are using version 2. In Eclipse, right click on your project and select Properties.
On the menu to the left, click Java Build Path and select the Libraries tab. Click the button Add Jar on the right. In the window that pops up, add the easymock.
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