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A wide range of different valves is available for many different applications and performance criteria. Furthermore, different designs are required to meet the numerous national standards that govern the use of safety valves. A listing of the relevant national Competing with operations tutorial can be found at the end of this module.
In most national standards, specific definitions are given for the terms associated with safety and safety relief valves. There are several notable differences between the terminology used in the USA and Europe.
It may be used for either compressible or incompressible fluids, depending on design, adjustment, or application. This is a general term, which includes safety valves, relief valves and safety relief valves. Safety valves are primarily used with compressible gases and in particular for steam and air services.
However, they can also be used for process type applications where they may be needed to protect the plant or to prevent spoilage of the product being processed.
Relief valves are commonly used in liquid systems, especially for lower capacities and thermal expansion duty.
They can also be used on pumped systems as pressure overspill devices. In general, the safety relief valve will perform as a safety valve when used in a compressible gas system, but it will open in proportion to the overpressure when used in liquid systems, as would a relief valve.
Typical examples of safety valves used on steam systems are shown in Figure 9. The basic elements of the design consist of a right angle pattern valve body with the valve inlet connection, or nozzle, mounted on the pressure-containing system. The outlet connection may be screwed or flanged for connection to a piped discharge system.
However, in some applications, such as compressed air systems, the safety valve will not have an outlet connection, and the fluid is vented directly to the atmosphere. The approach channel is the only part of the safety valve that is exposed to the process fluid during normal operation, other than the disc, unless the valve is discharging.
Full-nozzles are usually incorporated in safety valves designed for process and high pressure applications, especially when the fluid is corrosive.
Conversely, the semi-nozzle design consists of a seating ring fitted into the body, the top of which forms the seat of the valve. The advantage of this arrangement is that the seat can easily be replaced, without replacing the whole inlet. The disc is held against the nozzle seat under normal operating conditions by the spring, which is housed in an open or closed spring housing arrangement or bonnet mounted on top of the body.
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The discs used in rapid opening pop type safety valves are surrounded by a shroud, disc holder or huddling chamber which helps to produce the rapid opening characteristic.
The amount of compression on the spring is usually adjustable, using the spring adjuster, to alter the pressure at which the disc is lifted off its seat. Standards that govern the design and use of safety valves generally only define the three dimensions that relate to the discharge capacity of the safety valve, namely the flow or bore area, the curtain area and the discharge or orifice area see Figure 9.
Flow area - The minimum cross-sectional area between the inlet and the seat, at its narrowest point. Curtain area - The area of the cylindrical or conical discharge opening between the seating surfaces created by the lift of the disk above the seat.
Discharge area - This is the lesser of the curtain and flow areas, which determines the flow through the valve. Valves in which the flow area and not the curtain area determines the capacity are known as full lift valves. These valves will have a greater capacity than low lift or high lift valves.
This issue will be discussed in greater depth in Module 9.
Although the principal elements of a conventional safety valve are similar, the design details can vary considerably. In general, the DIN style valves commonly used throughout Europe tend to use a simpler construction with a fixed skirt or hood arrangement whereas the ASME style valves have a more complex design that includes one or two adjustable blowdown rings.
The position of these rings can be used to fine-tune the overpressure and blowdown values of the valve. For a given orifice area, there may be a number of different inlet and outlet connection sizes, as well as body dimensions such as centreline to face dimensions.
Furthermore, many competing products, particularly of European origin have differing dimensions and capacities for the same nominal size.
An exception to this situation is found with steel ASME specification valves, which invariably follow the recommendations of the API Recommended Practicewhere centreline to face dimensions, and orifice sizes are listed.1.
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